Syria: EU releases the names of those nine that have been added with Bashar al-Assad to the sanction list

As was announced yesterday EU – the foreign ministers of the 27 EU member in a meeting of the Council of the European Union – imposed sanctions on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and nine other Syrian decision makers involved in the crackdown on demonstrators. Today the EU released the names of added to the Syrian sanction list in the Official Journal of the European Union (L 136, Vol 54, 24 May 2011). The new names have been added to annex II of the sanction list that was established by Council Regulation 442/2011.

The sanction list are as follows:

1. Bashar Al-Assad

Born on 11 September 1965 in Damascus; diplomatic passport No. D1903. President of the Republic; person authorising and supervising the crackdown on demonstrators.

2. Maher (a.k.a. Mahir) Al-Assad

Born on 8 December 1967; diplomatic passport No. 4138

Commander of the Army’s 4th Armoured Division, member of Baath Party Central Command, strongman of the Republican Guard; brother of President Bashar Al- Assad; principal overseer of violence against demonstrator

3. Ali Mamluk (a.k.a. Mamlouk)

Born on 19 February 1946 in Damascus; diplomatic passport No. 983

Head of Syrian General Intelligence Directorate (GID); involved in violence against demonstrators.

4. Muhammad Ibrahim Al-Sha’ar (a.k.a. Mohammad Ibrahim Al-Chaar)

Minister of Interior; involved in violence against demonstrators.

5. Atej (a.k.a Atef, Atif) Najib

Former Head of the Political Security Directorate in Deraa; cousin of President Bashar Al-Assad; involved in violence against demonstrators.

6. Hafiz Makhluf (a.k.a. Hafez Makhlouf)

Born on 2 April 1971 in Damascus; diplomatic passport No. 2246

Colonel and Head of Unit in General Intelligence Directorate, Damascus Branch; cousin of President Bashar Al-Assad; close to Maher Al-Assad; involved in violence against demonstrators.

7. Muhammad Dib Zaytun (a.k.a.Mohammed Dib Zeitoun)

Born on 20 May 1951 in Damascus; diplomatic passport No. D000001300

Head of Political Security Directorate; involved in violence against demonstrators.

8. Amjad Al-Abbas

Head of Political Security in Banyas, involved in violence against demonstrators in Baida.

9. Rami Makhlouf

Born on 10 July 1969 in Damascus, passport No. 454 224

Syrian businessman; associate of Maher Al- Assad; cousin of President Bashar Al-Assad; provides funding to the regime allowing violence against demonstrators.

10. Abd Al-Fatah Qudsiyah

Born in 1953 in Hama; diplomatic passport No. D0005788

Head of Syrian Military Intelligence (SMI); involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

11. Jamil Hassan

Head of Syrian Air Force Intelligence; involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

12. Rustum Ghazali

Born on 3 May 1953 in Dara’a; diplomatic passport No. D000000887

Head of Syrian Military Intelligence, Damascus Countryside Branch; involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

13. Fawwaz Al-Assad

Born on 18 June 1962 in Kerdala; passport No. 88238

Involved in the crackdown on the civilian population as part of the Shabiha militia.

14. Munzir Al-Assad

Born on 1 March 1961 in Lattakia; passport No. 86449 and No. 842 781

Involved in the crackdown on the civilian population as part of the Shabiha militia.

15. Asif Shawkat

Born on 15 January 1950 in Al-Madehleh, Tartus

Deputy Chief of Staff for Security and Reconnaissance; involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

16. Hisham Ikhtiyar

Born in 1941. Head of Syrian National Security Bureau; involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

17. Faruq Al Shar’

Born on 10 December 1938

Vice-President of Syria; involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

18. Muhammad Nasif Khayrbik

Born on 10 April 1937 (alt. 20 May 1937) in Hama, diplomatic passport No. 0002250 Deputy Vice-President of Syria for National Security Affairs; involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

19. Mohamed Hamcho

Born on 20 May 1966; passport No. 002954347

Brother-in-law of Maher Al-Assad; businessman and local agent for several foreign companies; provides funding to the regime allowing the crackdown on demonstrators.

20. Iyad (a.k.a. Eyad) Makhlouf

Born on 21 January 1973 in Damascus; passport No. N001820740

Brother of Rami Makhlouf and GID Officer involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

21. Bassam Al Hassan

Presidential Advisor for Strategic Affairs; involved in the crackdown on the civilian population.

22. Dawud Rajiha

Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces responsible for the military involvement in the crackdown on peaceful protesters.

23. Ihab (a.k.a. Ehab, Iehab) Makhlouf

Born on 21 January 1973 in Damascus; passport no. N002848852

Vice-President of SyriaTel and caretaker for Rami Makhlouf’s US company; provides funding to the regime allowing the crackdown on demonstrators.

First there is a notable difference between the sanctions of USA and EU in that neither the Syrian Prime Minister nor the Minister of Defense is on the EU sanction list. Another thing that is worth to note is the number of individuals on the EU list that are related by blood or by marriage to the Assad/Makhlouf families – 10 of 23. A third point of interest is that EU has started to look into the Syrian businessmen who are bankrolling the regime.

About Leif Eriksson

Leif Eriksson has worked in the field of asylum at the Swedish Migration Agency specializing in the Middle East, Schengen and the Dublin Regulation, as Migration Attaché and head of the migration section at the Swedish Embassy in Damascus 2005 - 2008, as a resettlement consultant at the UNHCR branch office in Damascus 2008 - 2009, Consul at the Swedish Consulate General in Jerusalem 2012 - 2013 and associate RSD/RST officer at UNHCR in Beirut 2013 - 2014. He currently lives in Tbilisi, Georgia.
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